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Poisoning monographs

General background

Teaching outlines

Topic structure


Link to Problems for Discussion


This diverse group of drugs can be divided into the following groups:

  1. Direct acting vasodilators
    • Nitrates: Glyceryl trinitrate, Isosorbide Mononitrate, Isosorbide Dinitrate
    • Nitroprusside
    • Hydralazine
    • Diazoxide
    • Minoxidil
  2. Alpha Antagonists
    • Centrally acting: Clonidine (discussed separately), Methyl dopa
    • Peripheral Non-selective: Phentolamine, Phenoxybenzamine
    • Peripheral Selective: Prazosin, Terazosin
  3. Angiotensin acting
  4. Calcium Channel Blockers (discussed separately)


MacMillan AR, Warshawski FJ, Steinberg RA. Minoxidil overdose. Chest 1993;103(4):1290-1 PMID 8131492

Jahangiri M, Holdright DR. Myocardial infarction secondary to dipyridamole overdose. Arch Emerg Med 1992 Mar;9(1):62-4 PMID 1567532

Pigeon G, Genest J. Prolonged hydralazine hydrochloride administration in 132 hypertensive patients–Study of toxicity. Can Med Assoc J 1960 Oct 1;83:743-6 PMID 13735669

Varon J, Duncan SR. Naloxone reversal of hypotension due to captopril overdose. Ann Emerg Med 1991;20(10):1125-7 PMID 1928887

Farrell SE, Epstein SK. Overdose of rogaine extra strength for men topical minoxidil preparation. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1999;37(6):781-783 PMID 10584592

Rygnestad TK, Dale O. Self-poisoning with prazosin. Acta Med Scand 1983;213(2):157-8 PMID 6837333

Arora R, Timoney M, Melelli L. Acute Myocardial infarction after the use of sildenafil. N Eng J Med 1999;341(9):700 PMID 10475830

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