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wikitox:2.3.5.3.8_tiger_snakes [2018/09/01 09:00] (current)
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 +Link to [[:​wikitox:​problems_for_discussion_4_snakes|Problems for Discussion]]
 +
 +----
 +
 +====== Tiger Snake Group and Clinically Related Species ======
 +
 +The following snakes are considered together because they have a similar, but not identical, spectrum of envenomation and are all treated with Tiger Snake antivenom:
 +
 +  * Mainland (Eastern, common) tiger //Notechis scutatus//
 +  * Black ( Island) tiger //Notechis ater//
 +  * Western tiger //Notechis ater occidentalis//​
 +  * Krefft'​s tiger //Notechis ater ater//
 +  * Peninsula tiger //Notechis ater niger//
 +  * Chappell Island tiger //Notechis ater serventyi//
 +  * Tasmanian and King Island tiger //Notechis ater humphreysi//​
 +
 +This information should be read in conjunction with the detailed background information on [[:​wikitox:​2.3.5.3.2_australian_venomous_snakes|Australian snakebite.]]
 +
 +|**Antivenom** |Tiger Snake: starting dose 1 ampoule|
 +|**Bite Site** |70% effective bite, mild local pain, swelling and bruising|
 +|**Principle venom effect** |Predominantly myolysis & paralysis also coagulopathy|
 +
 +Tiger snakes are the second most important cause of snakebite in Australia. In general, they are wetland snakes and have a restricted distribution in southern (black tiger snake) and south-eastern (eastern tiger snake) Australia. They have small fangs (average length 3.5 mm) and produce a moderate amount of highly toxic venom (average 35 mg). Most bites are effective and as many as 70% of cases will need antivenom therapy (prior to antivenom availability 45% of tiger snakebites were fatal).
 +
 +Eastern tiger snakes are brown to olive green with diffuse banding; very rare specimens may be almost black. The brown colour phase may be mistaken for a brown snake but will almost always have some indication of diffuse bands. The black tiger snake is a glossy black to very dark brown with very little banding in the adult.
 +
 +Their toxic venom causes coagulopathy,​ myolysis, paralysis and renal failure. The coagulopathy is of the defibrination type and may be severe. The myolysis may be very severe, with peak CK of greater than 200,000 U/L, and significant muscle wasting. Secondary hyperkalaemia and renal failure is common in this situation. Paralysis is common, usually manifesting first as ptosis, which may develop 1-3 hours post bite. Complete respiratory paralysis is possible and is mediated by presynaptic neurotoxins,​ therefore once established may not be reversed by antivenom, hence the need to give the antivenom as soon as there is early evidence of paralysis.
 +
 +**NOTE: Gives positive result in the tiger snake tube of the Venom Detection Kit.**
 +
 +Preferred antivenom is CSL Tiger Snake Antivenom.
 +
 +===== REFERENCES =====
 +
 +[[http://​www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/​entrez/​query.fcgi?​cmd=Retrieve&​db=PubMed&​list_uids=10685181&​dopt=Abstract|Shea GM]]. The distribution and identification of dangerously venomous Australian terrestrial snakes. Aust.Vet.J. 1999;​77(12):​791-8. \\
 +Sutherland SK, Tibballs J. Treatment of snake bite in Australia. In: Sutherland SK, Tibballs J, editors. Australian Animal Toxins. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press; 2001. p. 286-342. \\
 +White J. Clinical Toxicology of Snakebite in Australia and New Guinea. In: Meier J, White J, editors. Handbook of Clinical Toxicology of Animal Venoms and Poisons. 1st ed. New York: CRC Press; 1995. p. 595-618.
 +
 +\\
 +
  
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