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wikitox:3.2.1.1.5_hallucinations [2018/09/01 09:00] (current)
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 +====== Hallucinations ======
 +
 +There are a very large number of toxins that can lead to hallucinations and/or delirium.
 +
 +  * Withdrawal states
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​3.2.1.3_toxidromes|Anticholinergic syndrome]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​3.2.1.3_toxidromes|Serotonergic syndrome]]
 +  * Dopaminergic drugs
 +  * Illicit drugs
 +  * Differentiating features
 +
 +A psychotomimetic reaction, with apparent visual or auditory hallucinations,​ delirium and heightened or only slightly decreased level of consciousness,​ is most commonly due to:
 +
 +==== Withdrawal states ====
 +
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​2.1.11.5.2_alcohol_withdrawal|Alcohol withdrawal]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​3.5.3_sedative_hypnotic|Sedative drug withdrawal]]
 +
 +==== The anticholinergic syndrome ====
 +
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​2.1.11.4.1_anticholinergics|Anticholinergic]] drugs
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​2.1.11.4.2_antihistamines|Antihistamines]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​2.1.11.9.2.1_tricyclic_antidepressants|Tricyclic antidepressants]] (TCAs)
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​2.1.11.9.3_antipsychotics|Low potency neuroleptics]]
 +
 +==== The serotonergic syndrome ====
 +
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​2.1.11.9.2.3_serotonin_reuptake_inhibitors|Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (]][[:​wikitox:​2.1.11.9.2.3_serotonin_reuptake_inhibitors|SSRI]]s)
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​2.1.11.9.2.2_monoamine_oxidase_inhibitors|Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO inhibitors]])
 +  * Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
 +
 +==== Dopaminergic drugs ====
 +
 +  * Bromocriptine
 +  * L-dopa
 +
 +==== Illicit drugs ====
 +
 +  * Amphetamines
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​2.1.11.4.8.1_cocaine|Cocaine]]
 +  * MDMA(ecstasy)
 +  * Illicit hallucinogens (LSD, mescaline)
 +  * Hallucinogenic mushrooms
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​2.3.4_plants|Hallucinogenic plants]] (mostly anticholinergic)
 +  * Marijuana
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​2.1.11.5.1_acute_management_of_alcohol_problems|Alcohol intoxication]]
 +
 +In addition, a large number of drugs that impair consciousness may lead to delirium usually without significant hallucinosis. These drugs are discussed under drugs leading to coma.
 +
 +==== Differentiating features ====
 +
 +Features that help to differentiate between these drugs are:
 +
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​response_to_painful_stimuli|Response to Painful Stimuli]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​type_of_hallucinations|Type of Hallucinations]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​hyperthermia|Hyperthermia]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​response_to_antagonists|Response to Antagonists]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​pupil_size_and_reaction|Pupil Size and Reaction]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​myoclonic_jerking_or_hyperreflexia|Myoclonic Jerking or Hyperreflexia]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​nystagmus|Nystagmus]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​heart_rates|Heart Rate]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​bowel_sounds|Bowel Sounds]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​ecg_changes|ECG Changes]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​response_to_antagonists|Response To Antagonists]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​electrolytes_and_blood_glucose|Electrolytes and Blood Glucose]]
 +  * [[:​wikitox:​blood_concentrations|Blood Concentrations]]
 +
 +See also [[:​wikitox:​delirium_and_its_treatment|delirium treatment]].
 +
  
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