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wikitox:3.2.1.3_toxidromes

Link to 3.2.1.3 Toxidromes Teaching Resources


Toxidromes

ANTICHOLINERGIC TOXIDROME

(e.g. antidepressants, antipsychotics, antihistamines, Brugmansia (Datura))

CHOLINERGIC TOXIDROME

  • Muscarinic effects
  • Nicotinic effects

See organophosphates and carbamates.

Muscarinic effects

  • defaecation
  • urination
  • miosis (small pupils)
  • bradycardia
  • emesis
  • lachrymation
  • increased secretions
  • sweating

Nicotinic effects

  • tachycardia
  • hypertension
  • muscle fasciculation
  • paralysis

OPIOID TOXIDROME

(e.g. heroin, morphine, methadone, codeine)

  • CNS depression
  • Hypoventilation
  • Hypotension
  • Miosis
  • Pulmonary oedema
  • Rapid response to naloxone

Also see differential diagnosis of coma and explore the opioid module.

SYMPATHOMIMETIC TOXIDROME

(e.g. amphetamines, theophylline, salbutamol, cocaine)

  • CNS excitation
  • Seizures
  • Tremor
  • Hyperreflexia
  • Hyper/hypotension
  • Tachycardia
  • Low potassium, raised blood glucose, acidosis

Also, see differential diagnosis of sympathomimetic syndrome

and explore Theophylline, MAO Inhibitor and Cocaine

SEROTONERGIC TOXIDROME

e.g. MAO inhibitors, clomipramine, SSRIs, tryptophan (particularly in combination).

A primary neuroexcitation spectrum of toxicity involving predominantly 5-HT2 receptors with abnormalities of

  • Mental status
    • agitation/restlessness/confusion/hypomania
  • Motor system
    • clonus/myoclonus
      • inducible/spontaneous/ocular
    • tremor/shivering
    • hyperreflexia/hypertonia/rigidity
  • Autonomic nervous system
    • diaphoresis/tachycardia/flushing/mydriasis

Explore serotonin toxicity module
Explore MAO inhibitor module
Explore selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor module
Explore tricyclic antidepressant module

wikitox/3.2.1.3_toxidromes.txt · Last modified: 2018/09/01 09:00 (external edit)