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wikitox:hazmat_course_module_1

HazMat Course Module 1

TOXICOLOGY OF SOME MAJOR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

Because of the potential for terrorist events, many have expressed concern about the possibility of a terrorist attack involving toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), or toxic industrial materials (TIMs). These agents can be highly toxic and are produced in large quantities.

What are toxic industrial chemicals?

Toxic industrial chemicals are industrial chemicals that are manufactured, stored, transported, and used throughout the world. Toxic industrial chemicals can be in the gas, liquid, or solid state. They can be chemical hazards (e.g., carcinogens, reproductive hazards, corrosives, or agents that affect the lungs or blood) or physical hazards (e.g., flammable, combustible, explosive, or reactive). The following table lists the most common TICs listed by their hazard index.


TICs listed by hazard index
High Medium Low
Ammonia (CAS# 7664-41-7)Acetone cyanohydrin (CAS# 75-86-5)Allyl isothiocyanate (CAS# 57-06-7)
Arsine (CAS# 7784-42-1)Acrolein (CAS# 107-02-8)Arsenic trichloride (CAS# 7784-34-1)
Boron trichloride (CAS#10294-34-5)Acrylonitrile (CAS# 107-13-l)Bromine (CAS# 7726-95-6)
Boron trifluoride (CAS#7637-07-2)Allyl alcohol (CAS# 107-18-6)Bromine chloride (CAS# 13863-41-7)
Carbon disulfide (CAS# 75-15-0)Allylamine (CAS# 107-11-9)Bromine pentafluoride (CAS# 7789-30-2)
Chlorine (CAS# 7782-50-5)Allyl chlorocarbonate (CAS# 2937-50-0)Bromine trifluoride (CAS# 7787-71-5)
Diborane (CAS# 19287-45-7)Boron tribromide (CAS# 10294-33-4)Carbonyl fluoride (CAS# 353-50-4)
Ethylene oxide (CAS# 75-21-8)Carbon monoxide (CAS# 630-08-0)Chlorine pentafluoride (CAS# 13637-63-3)
Fluorine (CAS# 7782-41-4)Carbonyl sulfide (CAS# 463-58-1)Chlorine trifluoride (CAS# 7790-91-2)
Formaldehyde (CAS# 50-00-0)Chloroacetone (CAS# 78-95-5)Chloroacetaldehyde (CAS# 107-20-0)
Hydrogen bromide (CAS# 10035-10-6)Chloroacetonitrile (CAS# 7790-94-5)Chloroacetyl chloride (CAS# 79-04-9)
Hydrogen chloride (CAS# 7647-01-0)Chlorosulfonic acid (CAS# 7790-94-5)Crotonaldehyde (CAS# 123-73-9)
Hydrogen cyanide (CAS#74-90-8)Diketene (CAS# 674-82-8)Cyanogen chloride (CAS# 506-77-4)
Hydrogen fluoride (CAS# 7664-39-3)1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (CAS# 540-73-8)Dimethyl sulfate (CAS# 77-78-1)
Hydrogen sulfide (CAS# 7783-0604)Ethylene dibromide (CAS# 106-93-4)Diphenylmethane-4.4'-diisocyanate (CAS# 101-68-8)
Nitric acid, fuming (CAS# 7697-37-2)Hydrogen selenide (CAS# 7783-07-5)Ethyl chlroroformate (CAS# 541-41-3)
Phosgene (CAS# 75-44-5)Methanesulfonyl chloride (CAS# 124-63-0)Ethyl chlorothioformate (CAS# 2941-64-2)
Phosphorus trichloride (CAS# 7719-12-2)Methyl bromide (CAS# 74-83-9)Ethyl phosphonothioic dichloride (CAS# 993–43–1)
Sulfur dioxide (CAS# 7446-09-5)Methyl chloroformate (CAS# 79-22-1)Ethyl phosphonic dichloride (CAS# 1066-50-8)
Sulfuric acid (CAS# 7664-93-9)Methyl chlorosilane (CAS# 993-00-0)Ethyleneimine (CAS# 151-56-4)
Tungsten hexafluoride (CAS# 7783-82-6)Methyl hydrazine (CAS# 60-34-4)Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (CAS# 77-47-4)
Methyl isocyanate (CAS# 624-83-9)Hydrogen iodide (CAS# 10034-85-2)
Methyl mercaptan (CAS# 74-93-1)Iron pentacarbonyl (CAS# 13463-40-6)
Nitrogen dioxide (CAS# 10102-44-0)Isobutyl chloroformate (CAS# 543-27-1)
Phosphine (CAS# 7803-51-2)Isopropyl chloroformate (CAS# 108-23-6)
Phosphorus oxychloride (CAS# 10025-87-3)Isopropyl isocyanate (CAS# 1795-48-8)
Phosphorus pentafluoride (CAS# 7647-19-0)n-Butyl chloroformate (CAS# 592-34-7)
Selenium hexafluoride (CAS# 7783-79-1)n-Butyl isocyanate (CAS# 111-36-4)
Silicon tetrafluoride (CAS# 7783-61-1)Nitric oxide (CAS# 10102-43-9)
Stibine (CAS# 7803-52-3)n-Propyl chloroformate (CAS# 109-61-5)
Sulfur trioxide (CAS# 7446-11-9)Parathion (CAS#: 56-38-2)
Sulfuryl fluoride (CAS# 2699-79-8)Perchloromethyl mercaptan (CAS# 594-42-3)
Tellurium hexafluoride (CAS# 7783-80-4)sec-Butyl chloroformate (CAS# 17462-58-7)
n-Octyl mercaptan (CAS# 111-88-6)tert-Butyl isocyanate (CAS# 1609-86-5)
Titanium tetrachloride (CAS# 7550-45-0)Tetraethyl lead (CAS# 78-00-2)
Tricholoroacetyl chloride (CAS# 76-02-8)Tetraethyl pyroposphate (CAS# 107-49-3)
Trifluoroacetyl chloride (CAS# 354-32-5)Tetramethyl lead (CAS# 75-74-1)
Toluene 2.4-diisocyanate (CAS# 584-84-9)
Toluene 2.6-diisocyanate (CAS# 91-08-7)

How long would aerosolized toxic industrial chemicals persist in the environment?

The time that these agents persist in the environment is dependent on many variables such as physical state (solid, liquid, or gas), weather conditions (wind speed, rain or snow, air or surface temperature), indoor or outdoor release, chemical stability, method of release (vapor or aerosol), or quantity released.

Health Effects

How do toxic industrial chemicals affect people?

Many toxic industrial chemicals are highly toxic and may rapidly affect exposed individuals. Toxic industrial chemicals (whether as a gas, aerosol, or liquid) enter the body through inhalation, through the skin, or through digestion. The time that it takes for a toxic industrial chemical to begin working is dependent mainly on the route that the agent enters the body. Generally poisoning occurs more quickly if a chemical enters through the lungs (because of the ability of the agent to rapidly diffuse throughout the body). Information related to how the chemicals affect humans and symptoms of exposure to specific chemicals can be found in material safety data sheets (MSDS) or chemical information cards.

Read the following documents:

  • ATSDR toxicological profile for cyanide cyandideatsdr.pdf
  • ATSDR toxicological profile for chlorine chlorineatsdr.pdf [8 MB]
  • ATSDR toxicological profile for hydrogen sulfide hydrogensulfideatsdr.pdf [4 MB]
  • ATSDR toxicological profile for ammonia ammoniaatsdr.pdf [2 MB]

Assignment

From the table above choose two chemicals from the high hazard column other than cyanide, chlorine, hydrogen sulphide or ammonia and write a report on their health effects (approximately 500 words for each chemical).


wikitox/hazmat_course_module_1.txt · Last modified: 2018/09/01 09:01 (external edit)