A 17-year-old male is brought to hospital by his parents. Whilst intoxicated at a party he ate, for a bet, a whole leaf of dumbcane (Dieffenbachia). Almost immediately he experienced severe pain. He is salivating profusely and is unable to speak.
An eighteen-month-old girl is brought by her parents to hospital after being observed to eat a small brown mushroom growing in their backyard. Half an hour later she began to vomit profusely. The family present to their local hospital with a sample of one of the mushrooms from the area where she picked the eaten mushroom.
A 56-year-old male is brought to hospital by ambulance. Three hours previously he made an infusion using yellow oleander seeds that he then consumed in a suicide attempt. He began vomiting profusely. His heart rate is 50/min and blood pressure 130/80. An ECG shows sinus bradycardia and first degree heart block.
A 13-month-old boy was found eating cigarette butts out of an ashtray. Thirty minutes later he vomited several times and his parents brought him to hospital. On arrival he was noted to be sweaty and salivating. He did not interact with his parents. His pulse rate was 160/min, blood pressure 130/80 and respiratory rate 30/min.
A 30 year old girl was brought to the emergency department following ingestion of unknown amount of yellow oleander seeds with sugar.
A 25 year old man was admitted 4 hours following ingestion of 5 yellow oleander seeds. He vomited several times on admission. His Glasgow coma scale was 15/15 and the blood pressure was 100/70 with a pulse rate of 50 beats per minute. The ECG revealed a first degree heart block.
4 hours later his blood pressure drops to 70mmHg and the ECG showed a third degree heart block.
A 13 year old young boy was admitted with excessive sweating and abdominal pain. He was found to be tachycardic (pulse of 140 beats per minute) and hypertensive (blood pressure was 150/90) He also had dilated pupils, fasciculations and a temperature of 390 C.
A 15-year-old female is brought in to the emergency department (ED) with an acute confusional state. She has been brought in by her parents who were rung when she was found wandering the streets by passers-by. Nothing can be obtained in the way of history. She had said she was going to a friend’s house six hours previously when she had been completely well. She is on no regular medication. She has previously been suspected to be drunk by her parents.
On examination, she is extremely anxious, distracted by apparent visual hallucinations and incoherent. She has dilated but reactive pupils and is complaining of nausea (the one thing you can understand). Her temperature is 37.5 degrees, her heart rate is 110 beats per minute and blood pressure is 145/90 mmHg.
A group of five adolescent males are brought to the Emergency Department of a rural hospital all in a state of delirium. Their ages range from 16 to 19. One of them keeps repeating the phrase ‘magic mushrooms’; the others are incoherent. From one patient driver’s licence his parents are contacted who said the five had left the previous day for a camping trip in the mountains but had been out of mobile phone range since midday yesterday. Nothing of their movements was known until the police were called to a disturbance at the camping grounds. The five were found stumbling around the campsite raving incoherently. Police found no alcohol or medications on searching their campsite but a home-made ‘bong’ and a small amount of what Police thought was cannabis was found in one of the boy’s sleeping bag.
A 7 year old boy was brought into the casualty department by her parents in a state of delirium after wondering into the nearby shrub. There was no other available history.
Clinical examination revealed an extremely anxious child who was distracted by visual hallucinations. His pupils were 6mm and reactive. His skin was warm and dry and the axillary temperature was 380C. His pulse was 140 beats per minute and the blood pressure was 100/70mmHg. His bladder was distended.
A 25 year old young man was brought in to the casualty department in a state of delirium. He has been smoking a cigarette presented to him by one of his friends one hour ago. He was agitated and hallucinating. He had dilated pupils. His pulse was 140beats per minute and blood pressure 140/100mmHg.
A 20 year old girl was brought to the casualty department by the parents after a brief period of colicky abdominal pain, profuse vomiting and bloody diarrhea. She was under the care of the psychiatry team for depression. Her GCS was 13/15. There was no rigidity. His peripheries were cold and a feeble pulse of 140 beats per minute was felt and his blood pressure was 50mmHg.
12 hours after admission her urine output has declined to 10ml/hour. Her SGPT was raised at 200iu/L.